Ballot Access News: Updated Voter Registration Totals

From the December 2012 Ballot Access News:

OCTOBER 2012 REGISTRATION TOTALS
(updated 1/1/13)

~

Dem.

Rep.

Indp, misc

Lib’t.

Green

Consti.

Reform

Am. Elect

other

Alaska

73,468

137,666

268,797

7,719

2,007

80

?

?

16,964

Arizona

952,931

1,120,992

1,023,603

22,086

4,863

?

?

237

- -

Calif.

7,966,422

5,356,608

4,138,251

108,736

115,034

260

17,937

3,313

539,409

Colorado

887,470

925,785

900,490

19,585

7,197

5,702

?

3,017

- -

Conn.

767,693

430,439

873,337

1,603

1,815

182

87

?

14,155

Delaware

300,332

181,717

144,198

908

634

414

105

?

3,953

Dt. Col.

354,658

30,483

81,595

?

4,225

?

?

?

- -

Florida

4,781,978

4,245,991

2,572,901

19,892

5,705

974

1,961

103

304,941

Idaho

36,220

196,271

550,189

1,312

?

548

?

?

- -

Iowa

628,043

629,443

694,558

2,203

875

0

0

0

- -

Kansas

446,237

790,345

522,096

11,373

0

0

978

223

0

Kentucky

1,665,853

1,151,331

216,333

2,615

637

226

92

?

66

Louis’na

1,429,073

815,769

707,159

6,889

1,707

118

1,441

764

79

Maine

297,445

258,463

337,535

?

32,315

?

?

58

- -

Maryland

2,059,544

959,858

655,000

11,256

8,716

?

?

153

- -

Mass.

1,551,693

484,099

2,286,646

13,336

6,507

102

205

?

253

Nebraska

374,191

558,170

228,563

3,117

?

?

?

125

- -

Nevada

526,986

436,799

226,072

8,448

1,186

58,130

?

?

- -

N. Hamp.

224,915

258,714

307,805

?

?

?

?

?

- -

N. Jersey

1,787,480

1,084,757

2,621,197

1,899

1,203

164

71

?

551

N. Mex.

596,209

395,992

249,350

3,541

6,953

143

3

1

2,081

N. York

5,913,035

2,873,360

2,480,766

3,874

22,955

?

?

?

675,202

No. Car.

2,871,249

2,052,608

1,707,318

19,347

?

?

?

?

- -

Okla.

965,073

895,771

254,225

?

?

?

?

18

- -

Oregon

878,460

688,504

521,595

15,434

11,143

3,401

?

82

100,738

Pennsyl.

3,877,434

2,890,368

968,009

36,353

12,599

3,814

?

?

- -

Rhode Is.

299,037

77,177

355,511

?

?

?

?

106

1,090

So. Dak.

189,493

243,113

94,536

1,126

?

349

?

4

- -

Utah

120,929

614,730

556,911

5,572

1,089

3,221

?

15

34

W. Va.

638,086

353,179

236,555

1,448

1,317

?

?

?

- -

Wyo.

51,109

160,361

27,709

1,139

?

90

?

9

21

TOTAL

43,512,746

31,298,863

26,808,810

330,811

250,682

77,918

22,880

6,408

1,659,537

Percent

41.85%

30.10%

25.79%

.32%

.24%

.07%

.02%

.01%

1.60%

All figures are from October and November 2012, except the Connecticut minor party numbers are as of February 2012.

Totals October 2010 were: Dem. 43,140,758 (42.98%), Rep. 30,700,138 (30.58%), Indp. & misc. 24,359,097 (24.27%), AIP/Constitution 476,669 (.47%), Libertarian 278,446 (.28%), Green 246,145 (.25%), Working Families 44,867 (.04%), Reform 30,237 (.03%), other parties 1,107,843 (1.10%).

Totals October 2008 were: Dem. 43,933,901 (43.62%), Rep. 30,944,590 (30.72%), Indp. & misc. 24,157,259 (23.98%), AIP/Constitution 438,222 (.44%), Green 255,019 (.25%), Libertarian 240,328 (.24%), Reform 32,961 (.03%), other parties 675,980 (.67%).

Totals October 2004 were: Dem. 37,301,951 (42.19%), Rep. 28,988,593 (32.79%), Indp. & misc. 20,471,250 (23.15%), Constitution 320,019 (.36%), Green 298,701 (.34%), Libertarian 235,521 (.27%), Reform 63,729 (.07%), Natural Law 39,670 (.04%), other parties 695,639 (.79%).

Totals October 2000 were: Dem. 38,529,264 (43.84%), Rep. 28,813,511 (32.78%), Indp. & misc. 18,999,126 (21.62%), Constitution 348,977 (.40%), Libertarian 224,713 (.26%), Green 193,332 (.22%), Reform 99,408 (.11%), Natural Law 61,405 (.07%), other parties 620,668 (.71%).

Totals October 1992 were: Dem. 35,616,630 (47.76%), Rep. 24,590,383 (32.97%), Indp. & misc. 13,617,167 (18.26%), Green 102,557 (.14%), Libertarian 100,394 (.13%), other parties 554,668 (.74%).


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42 thoughts on “Ballot Access News: Updated Voter Registration Totals

  1. Krzysztof Lesiak

    it sucks that AIP is no longer Constitution Party, they would have over half a million members if they were.

    I really hope Don Grundmann, Jim King, and the rest of the CA patriots, take the AIP back from the Alan Keyes neocons, and that the CP will be on the ballot in CA in 2016!!!!

  2. Krzysztof Lesiak

    Lol, the Reform Party still has members? they should just disband now. 2 presidential elections in a row, their presidential candidate can’t even get a 1,000 votes lol.
    in 08 Ted Weil got 480 and 2012 Andre Barnett got 954.
    Reform party should just disband and join the Constitution Party or something.

  3. paulie Post author

    he is missing AIP stats in CA.

    It’s lumped in under “other” for CA (the last column). 539,409 with other parties in CA. You’ll notice there are a few other states that have large totals for “Other” due to one-state parties. Since they are not national parties with registration totals in multiple states they don’t get their own column.

  4. Trent Hill

    CP definitely hit high points in 2000 and 2008. But the loss of California and the lack of ballot access in Pennsylvania in 2008 have proven to be near fatal blows.

  5. paulie Post author

    it sucks that AIP is no longer Constitution Party, they would have over half a million members if they were.

    They wouldn’t be members, just people who registered that way. Candidate vote totals, meeting participation numbers and my personal experience registering thousands of voters in that state as well as that of many other people I have talked to who have registered voters in CA all lead me to believe that the vast majority of people who register AIP have no idea that it is a political party or what it stands for.

    Notice how the CP’s registered voter totals without the AIP went from 477k to 78k in two years, and that of the remaining CP registered voters 58k (or about 75%) are with the Independent American Party in Nevada. That party is much more active and has more vote totals and attendance totals than AIP in CA but I would bet there are still a lot of people who register with them thinking they are registering independent.

  6. paulie Post author

    Lol, the Reform Party still has members? they should just disband now. 2 presidential elections in a row, their presidential candidate can’t even get a 1,000 votes lol.

    If you mean registered voters, most of those are probably people who registered with them in 1992-2000 and just haven’t changed it since then. It looks like the vast majority of those are in California.

    Elsewhere in BAN: Reform: had three different presidential candidates, each on the ballot in one state. Chuck Baldwin received 5,017 in Kansas; Andre Barnett received 820 in Florida plus these write-ins: Alabama 1, Maryland 19, Minnesota 4, Montana 2, Texas 87, Utah 5, total 938; Barbara Washer received 1,016 in Mississippi.

    Reform party should just disband and join the Constitution Party or something.

    Would that be a good fit? I thought the Reform Party was supposed to be more centrist and/or non-ideological rather than conservative.

  7. paulie Post author

    My analysis to LNC:

    Libertarian voter registration nationwide has exploded to 330k (0.32%) from 278k (0.28%) two years earlier and 240k (0.24%) four years ago. By contrast, it grew very little (or declined, in percentage terms) from 2000-2008, but grew from 100k (0.13%) to 225k (0.26%) from 1992 to 2000.

    The 1992-2000 period saw a corresponding growth in our dues paying membership. The new period of growth in registrations since 2008 has not. The latest monthly report shows dues paying membership dropping again after several months of growth.

    Other parties, for comparison:

    *Democrats and Republicans are both on a long term downslope in voter registrations, with some bumps upward from time to time

    *Greens grew a lot from 1992 to 2000 and kept growing in 2004, but since then have not seen much change in their numbers. They were ahead of the LP in registration in 2004 and 2008, but fell back behind by 2010. Surprisingly, they were also slightly ahead in 1992, before they had ever run a presidential candidate.

    *Constitution Party is hard to compare, because the vast majority of their registrations were AIP in California. This year for the first time Richard is not crediting them with the AIP totals, so they went from “third” at 477k in 2010 to being well behind LP and Greens – 78k in 2012, of which58k (about 75%) are Independent American Party in Nevada.

    *Independents have increased every single time.

    *2012 is the first ranking that shows LP clearly in third place among nationally organized parties, well ahead of both the Green and Constitution Parties. 1992, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2010 show one or more additional party ahead of us besides Ds and Rs.

    Clearly the registered voter numbers show increased potential for LP membership, as do our vote totals two months ago. We need to look back to best practices from 1992-2000 to help us translate that into dues paying membership and income. Of course, we also have to use technology better. What are we doing to learn from what we have done successfully and less than successfully in the past?

  8. paulie Post author

    Anyone interested in funding a SW states voter registrations project for the LP?

    *We are in striking distance of Greens in CA, and while we are ahead of the number for retention, our registrations could fall through attrition or the voter turnout in 2014 could move the goalposts.

    * We are in striking distance of ballot retention through voter registration in NV. We barely got it through Johnson’s total in 2012; it would be very achievable to bump it up to where we would not have to worry about election results.

    * We are ahead of the retention percentage in AZ, but not by much.

    * We are very close to retention through registrations in NM, and while we are far from the Greens in percentage, the difference would be easy to make up with an organized drive.

    CA and NM are also among the very few places where the Greens are ahead in registrations anymore.

    Let me know if you have questions. I’d like to do some of these projects in 2013, and I have the people to do them – all experienced petitioners and LP activists. I’d like to not just get voter registrations but use the opportunity to distribute literature, gather contacts, help start and strengthen local affiliates and campus clubs. All we need is funding to make it happen.

    415-690-6352 if anyone wants to discuss details.

  9. Peter J. Orvetti

    I think it’s rather odd that most small parties do not count registered voters as members. There aren’t 43 million people sending regular contributions to the Democrats, but they assert that the party has 43 million members.

    The LP should proudly say it has 330,811 members, and that about one in four are also donors.

  10. FLAMETHROWING LIBERTARIAN !

    Seems GOOD for the LP ! Leadership needs to continue to request new memberships . Keep at it and build your local Party. Not many millionairs around to fund these projects I imagine. All I can say is start a fundraiser. If you can get the LNC’s blessings all the better. If not , don’t let it faze you. How much would it take for the three (CA, NV, & NM) ? For two (CA & NV) (NV & NM) ? Or for each individually ? This with and without the LP Lit volunteered ? We do need to keep this going up, UP and ONWARD !!! A concerted effort now to build on the positives will equal huge dividends in ’13 and BEYOND.

    Thomas Sowell – Obama Going Forward: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7dpTtn5AQo&feature=em-subs_digest-vrecs

    Thanks for the continued great work Richard Winger !

  11. paulie Post author

    All I can say is start a fundraiser.

    Well, yes, I’m trying to do that.

    If you can get the LNC’s blessings all the better.

    Can I get blessing? Sure, if that doesn’t mean having to do anything. Fundraising lists, help in fundraising, etc? Not so much.
    Maybe I can get some individual donations….if I’m lucky. Not much luck so far.

    How much would it take for the three

    Four: AZ, CA, NM, NV

    200k would buy 25,000 registrations distributed between the four states, plus distribution of as much outreach material as we can get our hands on, gathering of several thousand contacts/info requests, and various other work on behalf of local and campus affiliates. If someone wants to do fundraising they could earn a commission on top of that.

    There’s actually not any practical limit to what we can do – if we got $10 million, we could put it to use.

    If we got $10,000, we could do a smaller demonstration, 1,000-1,500 registrations.

    Less than that would probably not justify going out there.

  12. johnO

    CP’s best is Colorado? That must be from Tancredo’s run for office. One would think Utah or one of the states in south would have more.

    – New Hampshire should have most LP members. Free State Movement and all.

  13. paulie Post author

    CP’s best state by far is Nevada, which has about 75% of their nationwide registered voters.

    Free State Project =/= LP; many Free Staters are principled non-voters or Ron Paul Republicans. There’s also iirc only afew hundred of them altogether. In any case it does not have anything to do with this since it appears NH is not one of the states that keeps track of LP registrations.

  14. Slam In A Y-Trap

    Colorado they are called American Constitution, so that may help them get registered voters, along with being a major party after Tancredo’s race.

  15. Andy

    “paulie // Jan 4, 2013 at 9:03 pm

    CP’s best state by far is Nevada, which has about 75% of their nationwide registered voters.”
    \
    Yeah, but like the American Independent Party in California )which is no longer affiliated with the Constitution Party), the majority of people registered under the Independent American Party think that they are registered as independents and have not idea what the party is about or even that it is a political party. So I’d say that this inflates their number of voter registrations by quite a bit.

  16. Slam In A Y-Trap

    That is an issue in Nevada too, but not as much as in CA due to Nevada having a much more active IAP as compared to California’s AIP.

  17. Andy

    How many more voter registrations does the Libertarian Party need in Nevada and New Mexico to maintain ballot access regardless of election results?

  18. paulie Post author

    Per what I was sent from Richard Winger

    New Mexico…the registration test for major party status is one-third of 1% of the state registration total.
    That would be 4174 and they have 3541.

    Nevada…needs 1%, so 12,577 if they were doing it now, but they need 1% of whatever it will be a year from now. They have 8,448 according to this chart.

  19. Andy

    “Krzysztof Lesiak // Jan 4, 2013 at 1:37 pm

    it sucks that AIP is no longer Constitution Party, they would have over half a million members if they were. ”

    The majority of people registered to vote under the American Independent Party banner in California have no idea that it is a political party or what the party is about as they mistakenly think that they are registered as independent, also known as Decline To State A Political Party. I know this as a fact because I personally registered several thousand people to vote in California while gathering signatures on petitions there over a period of a few years, and I worked in multiple counties (San Diego, Orange, Riverside, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and Contra Costa). I never had one person register under the American Independent Party banner on purpose, and it was a rarity to even encounter a person who identified themselves as being a supporter of the American Independent Party (as in somebody who was already registered under that party’s banner and who actually knew what it was).

    Most of the people who were registered under the Libertarian Party and Green Party banners actually knew what those party’s were, but not so with the American Independent Party.

  20. Dave Terry

    Seems to me these figures are VERY unreliable and
    need to be verified AND updated FIRST.

    For Ex: There are no Libertarian figures for DC, ME, NH, OK & RI.

    There are no Green figures for ID, NE, NH, NC, OK, RI, SD & WY.

    And no C.P. figures for AZ, DC, ME, MD, NE, NH, NY, NC, OK & RI

    AND the figures for Nevada are very, VERY suspicious; they show C.P with 58,130 members and the L.P with on 8448 and the Greens with a mere ll86.

  21. paulie Post author

    Many states don’t have registration by party at all. Others do, but only some parties qualify, and they are not the same parties in every state.

    Nevada’s IAP (Independent American Party) is their Constitution Party affiliate. They are indeed much more active than the LP there, but they also benefit from their name, as the AIP does in California (however, they no longer affiliate with Constitution Party).

    The numbers are entirely reliable and are kept very close track of by Richard Winger and various other people.

  22. paulie Post author

    The Greens in Nevada are very unorganized. They are much more organized some other places like California, Maine, New York, DC, Pennsylvania and Oregon.

  23. Andy

    Paulie said: “They are indeed much more active than the LP there,”

    The LP of Nevada was more active a few years ago than it has been lately. The lack of activity is probably the result of the in fighting that has gone on there. Hopefully they will return to their more active status in the near future.

  24. paulie Post author

    There’s a lot of LP constituency in Nevada. However the leadership is very tight with its control, so it’s not allowed to flourish.

  25. George Phillies

    @28 The LPNV is seeing its inner core people defect from the guy who is currently running it. The effective solution in cases like this is represented by Liberty for Massachusetts.

  26. Andy

    “NoGovNo // Jan 5, 2013 at 12:27 am

    We wish them luck.

    Some other states have similar issues, such as Pennsylvania.”

    What’s the problem in PA?

  27. NoGovNo

    Similar to Nevada. The state chair is into heavy handed top down control, and several local groups are not happy e.g. York County, Montgomery County, etc.

  28. FLAMETHROWING LIBERTARIAN !

    @32 They should IGNORE him. Then vote him OUT at the next convention !!! In NV it makes me wonder if the Root faction succeeded in wrecking the LP to help the Republicans in the longhaul!? If everyone would understand what the Dems and Rs understand that ALL politics is LOCAL and work on building their LOCAL LP the MUCH better it all would be !!!

    If my math is correct Paulie you and your group will supply the LP with new registrants in the 4 states at $8 to $10 per person. Any takers (donars) ?

    – – – – – – – – – –

    Have you signed this “We the People” petition ? Before Jan.29! – https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/work-congress-introduce-bill-rights-enforcement-clause/8bGN8pYc

  29. Andy

    “If my math is correct Paulie you and your group will supply the LP with new registrants in the 4 states at $8 to $10 per person. Any takers (donars) ?”

    #1, keep in mind that this was just a proposal, and #2, keep in mind that the proposed price range is actually less than what the Republican Party typically pays out on voter registrations.

  30. johnO

    Wonder what Progressive count for Vermont is?
    Also it would be interesting what counts would be for the various Socialist parties, Working Family Party, and say the Conservative Party in NY? That would be a very interesting list for minor parties.

  31. paulie Post author

    I just submitted the idea – no donors yet.

    The price is at the low end of what registrations typically cost political parties, and we are proposing to throw in a lot of other stuff besides registrations at no extra charge.

    The difference is we are all Libertarian activists and do the actual registration ourselves, versus other groups which may or may not be headed by Libertarians but end up hiring non-libertarians to do the actual work at a lower rate and keep the money as middlemen.

  32. Zapper

    Paulie,

    I like your idea for a voter registration project in the four states you’ve listed. It would be great if the LNC would get this set up as a self funded special project of some kind.

    Setting up independent county groups that can do outreach and keep the project going after your team was finished would add to the benefit. Setting up such county groups should also be part of the spin-off of the targeted advertising program I have been advocating.

    If the LNC would set up a limited number of future oriented party building projects, I would gladly donate and make some fundraising calls free of charge, if the LP has a list of big donors.

    Special projects for 2013:

    1) Advertising plan: the Zapper plan, beginning in 2013. The LP has never done significant advertising outside of Clark 80 LP POTUS campaign. This is a long term outreach/party building project. It’s long past time to begin. This should be an ongoing special project renewed each year.

    2) Voter registration project: as suggested by Paulie. We shouldn’t risk losing CA and should invest in the others as insurance for ballot access. A wise future investment.

    3) Building aquisition fund. This project seems to be underway. Should be set up as a special fund along with the others. Puts the LP in a strong long-term financial position and will encourage long term thinking and planning. Will encourage donors that funds are not being wasted.

    4) An Oklahoma ballot drive and party building fund. I’m not sure of the best time to actually begin this one. We must do this drive early. Get on the ballot and never let them beat us here
    again.

    I would suggest that the LNC set up these special projects. Only the four listed. Each will need donations in excess of $100,000 and each is an important opportunity that will attract donors. I have already pledged to number one. I would donate to each of these: the first three right away; the OK ballot drive when the time is right. It should begin early so we can do it right, but I haven’t looked into the timing.

  33. paulie Post author

    setting up county and campus groups, and strengthening existing ones, is part of what I want to do.

    Building acquisition fund is not actually underway yet. We still need the official results of the vote that was over on December 8(!) and for Hinkle’s motion to make the building fund more realistic, which has had enough sponsors for at least two weeks (I think more at this point) to be opened for voting. However, support is clearly there for some type of building purchase in or near DC.

    Right now the default position of LNC is that anyone is welcome to raise money for any project they want, but not to have the fundraising list. Thus, if you are willing to donate and/or fundraise for any project, you have what you are going to get from the LNC already. People can donate at LP.org and put a note on which project the donation is for on their check or on the webpage. They have recommended that we inform Robert Kraus of any projects that we will be raising any significant amount of money for so there’s no confusion about these notes.

    I’m trying to get the LNC to agree to targeted project fundraising along the lines you seem to be thinking of, but without much success so far. You are welcome to write the whole LNC at http://www.lp.org/lnc-leadership about this and any other concerns or ideas you have; each name links to an email address. I hope more people write us more often.

    Oklahoma needs a large number of valid signatures for 2014, and they need 10% for Governor to not have to do it again for 2016. National interest is likely to be higher for 2016 than 2014, so it’s more likely to come together after the 2014 election. For 2013, we are looking at Arkansas, North Dakota and Kentucky as far as signatures. Arkansas and North Dakota should ideally both be finished by November, which is the earliest that Kentucky can start. By we I mean whatever we can do independently or as a special project; LNC will not allocate money or release fundraising lists.

  34. FLAMETHROWING LIBERTARIAN !

    I contacted all the leadership last year about updating the LP.org website telling them that Mr. M.Wilson was willing to help them. I didn’t receive even one reply.

    These ideas are excellent IF ballot access can be maintained by the LP. We all realize as you register NEW members the total needed will increase due to the increase in registered voters.

    Could the costs be reduced if volunteers furnished you guys beds, baths and breakfast while you are working a state ? This is a great way for local members , friends and activists to really help the cause. Giving you a place to sleep and shower then a bowl of cereal and some fruit etc. to get you jumpstarted on the day !~ VIVA LIBERTARIAN ! It won’t cost them much and it could save you guys and the donars, thousands of dollars on hotel bills! Let’s face it as small as we are we have to use the statement “a penny saved is a penny earned” !

    Help me out, but I think the max someone can give to the Party per year for any type projects is $10,800. This will prob’ go up to $11K. It will take a lot of $11,000s to meet even Zappers small state plan. We must increase our numbers by thousands. I think someone wrote recently that $70 was the ave donation from members. That’s a long way from $11K each !

    As GJ learned in his LP POTUS race, the LP donar base is good for so much and no more. We must extend our numbers and Paulie & Co. is offering us a way in 4 Western states. I say this is something we definitely should consider.

    Paulie, I guess you can be reached at the phone number you post on here ???

    = = = = = = = = =

    What’s the Diff?!: http://www.youtube.com/user/clearsky24#p/u/27/KOji-ZIv4Vs

    It is not the business of government to make men virtuous or religious, or to preserve the fool from the consequences of his own folly. Government should be repressive no further than is necessary to secure liberty by protecting the equal rights of each from aggression on the part of others, and the moment governmental prohibitions extend beyond this line they are in danger of defeating the very ends they are intended to serve. – Henry George

    “The most dangerous man to any government is the man who is able to think things out for himself, without regard to the prevailing superstitions and taboos. Almost inevitably, he comes to the conclusion that the government he lives under is dishonest, insane, and intolerable.” -H. L. Mencken

  35. paulie Post author

    We all realize as you register NEW members the total needed will increase due to the increase in registered voters.

    Not by much, and even less than that since many people are already registered voters before we convince them to switch.

    Could the costs be reduced if volunteers furnished you guys beds, baths and breakfast while you are working a state ?

    People have a lot of different ways they like to live, so it can be kind of awkward. I used to like doing that, but now I find it easier to just stay at a motel.

    Help me out, but I think the max someone can give to the Party per year for any type projects is $10,800.

    Direct contributions to the national party are limited to about 30k a year. The total changes every year to adjust for inflation. State parties can receive different amounts based on state law; some unlimited. If someone actually wants to make a large contribution we can set up a PAC or some other structure to accomodate any amount someone is willing to give.

    Paulie, I guess you can be reached at the phone number you post on here ?

    Yes.

  36. Miro

    These totals are excellent, but I do have a correction to make with Massachusetts’.

    Our State Green Party is still divided between the Green Party USA and the Green-Rainbow Party. Those totals reflect the 6,507 Green-Rainbow Party members, but there are another 609 who are still just Greens, and if you want to get even more specific, there’s another 49 people who are still members of the Rainbow Coalition.

    I can understand if you want to argue that the Rainbow Coalition numbers shouldn’t be added, but I think it would be fair to combine the Green and Green-Rainbow numbers.

  37. paulie Post author

    @41 You may also want to let Richard Winger know directly if you haven’t already. He reads IPR frequently, but he may or may not see your comment here.

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